When talking about infections of the respiratory system, tuberculosis, which is a respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cannot be ignored.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), tuberculosis is an infection that manifests by a positive tuberculin test. In the United States, there is a definition that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is latent tuberculosis. In 90% of cases, tuberculosis develops in the lungs, in the remaining 10% of patients, it may involve other organs or systems, including the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary system.
The incidence of tuberculosis in pregnancy is estimated at about 1%, and a positive tuberculin test is found in about 1-10% of pregnant women. The diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in a pregnant woman makes it possible to prevent the development of an active form of the disease and infection of the child.
It should be remembered that sometimes patients with tuberculosis develop complexes of symptoms suggesting other diseases.
These include pseudocardial, pneumogastric, pseudo-influenza, and pseudo-diphtheria symptoms. There have also been numerous cases of tuberculosis without any beylikdüzü escort symptoms.
The classic clinical signs of tuberculosis are
- feverish conditions,
- coughing up mucus,
- pain in the chest,
- shortness of breath
- night sweats
Methods to Test Tuberculosis in Pregnancy
The best method of confirming tuberculosis is a bacteriological examination of the sputum for the presence of mycobacteria.
Chest x-rays (X-rays) – To assess the extent of tuberculous lesions in the lungs. However, it does not detect latent infections and extrapulmonary changes. In the case of pregnant women, a significant limitation in the use of radiological examination is the exposure of the fetus to ionizing radiation.
Therefore, if there are indications for X-rays in pregnant women, performed only after the 12th week of pregnancy, always using a cover on the mother’s abdomen. During pregnancy, always contact a lungs specialist hospital in Coimbatore for effective treatment solutions.
The tuberculin test is helpful in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This test does not distinguish infection from disease. However, it is safe for both the fetus and the mother. Importantly, pregnancy does not significantly affect the size of the tuberculin reaction.
Caring for a pregnant woman infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis includes obstetric check-ups according to the usual routine, that is, once a month. Apart from cases of respiratory failure, the period of labor and puerperium should not be problematic either. The maternal disease usually does not affect the condition of the fetus, as tuberculosis bacilli rarely cross the placental barrier.
Treatment of Tuberculosis in Pregnancy
Treatment of tuberculosis depends on the activity of the disease process. In latent infection, patients should start prophylactic treatment only after delivery, because then the risk of developing the disease is higher.
However, in the case of fresh (symptomatic) infections, treatment starts once confirmed, but not earlier than after the 12th week of pregnancy.
Tuberculosis in pregnancy is not a reason to end the pregnancy. Women undergoing treatment for tuberculosis can also breastfeed.
Treatment of tuberculosis in pregnant women can be carried out in a standard way, that is, with the use of a set of drugs whose action covers all groups of mycobacteria. The most commonly used drugs are rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide.
Pregnant women can use them and safe for the fetus. However, you should not administer aminoglycoside antibiotics – streptomycin, capreomycin, ethionamide (teratogenic – may cause birth defects in offspring). Forms of tuberculosis with slight lung lesions and negative sputum smears, treated with isoniazid and ethambutol alone.
Foods that are useful for treating tuberculosis in pregnancy
Patients with TB must adhere to certain dietary guidelines. What foods should be consumed and what foods should be avoided, according to tuberculosis doctors, are as follows.
An effective way to follow a therapeutic diet that increases
- Normalizing weight,
- Regenerating damaged tissues,
- Restoring metabolic processes and
- Impaired functions of one or another organ.
Due to the fact that in tuberculosis there is an increased breakdown of protein, food must supplement its deficiency. The intake of protein during the normal course of the disease should be upwards of two and a half grams. Milk, cottage cheese, fish, meat, and eggs are the best sources of protein.